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Who Bleeds During Elective Anterior Lumbar Surgery? London Spine

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CONCLUSIONS: Younger, leaner, non-heparinized, single level ALIF patients represented the lowest bleeding risk in anterior lumbar surgery. Conversely, older, increasing BMI, two operative levels, TDR prosthesis and heparinization represent the highest bleeding risk. Continuation of LD-ASA was not associated with an increase in BL.
Lumbar Disc Replacement Expert. Best Spinal Surgeon UK

Abstract

Background: Blood loss (BL) during elective anterior lumbar access for interbody fusion or disc replacement is a potentially major complication. This study sought to identify factors other than major vascular injury which contribute to BL and therefore this risk. Factors suggested to effect blood loss include age, increasing body mass index (BMI), sex, prothesis, intraoperative heparinization and continuation of low-dose aspirin (LD-ASA).

Methods: A Cell Saver was used in all cases with BL measured and recorded by an independent autotransfusionist. Heparin was administered intravenously when one or both of 2ndtoe saturation metre signal/s lost pulsatility indicating lower limb arterial flow was interrupted.

Results: The mean age of the 364 patients was 47 ± 13.2 yrs. [95% CI: 45 – 48]; and 191 (52%) were male. Age, BMI and heparinization showed a positive correlation with increased BL. There was no significant association with continuation of low-dose ASA with increased BL. Most patients underwent an ALIF – 265 (72%), 52 (14%) had a TDR, and 47 (13%) had a hybrid operation. There was a significant increase in mean BL between single- and two-level procedures in the non-heparinised group (48 vs 83 mls, p = 0.003). Intraoperative heparinization was administered in 102 patients (28%). The total mean BL for the heparin group (104 ml) which was significantly higher than for the non-heparin group (53 ml) (p = 0.001). Heparinisation did not significantly increase the mean BL in single or double level ALIF patients but did significantly increase the BL in single level TDR (57 vs 151 mls, p = 0.039).

Conclusions: Younger, leaner, non-heparinized, single level ALIF patients represented the lowest bleeding risk in anterior lumbar surgery. Conversely, older, increasing BMI, two operative levels, TDR prosthesis and heparinization represent the highest bleeding risk. Continuation of LD-ASA was not associated with an increase in BL.

Keywords: ALIF, anterior lumbar interbody fusion; Age; Anterior; Aspirin; BL, blood loss; BMI, body mass index; Blood loss; Body mass index; CI, confidence interval; Fusion; Heparin; LD-ASA, low-dose aspirin; Lumbar; TDR, total disk replacement; Total disc replacement.

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Who bleeds during elective anterior lumbar surgery?

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Abstract Background: Blood loss (BL) during elective anterior lumbar access for interbody fusion or disc replacement is a potentially major complication. This study sought to identify factors other than major vascular injury which contribute to BL and therefore this risk. Factors suggested to effect blood loss include age, increasing body mass index (BMI), sex, prothesis,…

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