Balloon kyphoplasty is a surgical procedure that is used to treat vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). These fractures occur when the bones in the spine become weakened or brittle and collapse under the weight of the body, leading to pain and deformity. Balloon kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is used to restore the height of the vertebral body and reduce pain.
During the procedure, a small incision is made in the skin over the affected vertebral body. A hollow needle is then inserted through the incision and into the vertebral body. A small balloon is then inflated inside the vertebral body using sterile saline solution. The balloon is used to create a cavity within the vertebral body and restore its height. Once the balloon is removed, the cavity is filled with a special cement-like material called polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The PMMA hardens and stabilizes the vertebral body, reducing pain and improving mobility.
Balloon kyphoplasty is usually performed on an outpatient basis and does not require a hospital stay. It is usually done under general anesthesia, but local or regional anesthesia may also be used. The procedure typically takes about 1-2 hours to complete and most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few days.