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The therapeutic effects of percutaneous kyphoplasty on osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with or without intravertebral cleft

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) on osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with or without intravertebral cleft (IVC). METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 309 OVCFs patients (43 males, 266 females) treated with PKP were included in our study. All patients were divided into no intravertebral cleft (NIVC) group and intravertebral cleft (IVC) group according to pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging. Anterior wall height (AWH), posterior wall height (PWH), and kyphotic angle (KA) of the injured vertebral body were evaluated pre-operatively, post-operatively, and at final follow-up. RESULTS: All patients were followed up for 12~34 months, with an average of 16.2 months. The incidence of IVC was associated with older age and lower bone mineral density (BMD). The anterior wall, posterior wall, and kyphotic angle of vertebral bodies of patients from both groups were significantly improved immediately after surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) also improved significantly without significant difference between the two groups. At the final follow-up, compared to that immediately after surgery, the anterior wall height decreased and kyphotic angle increased significantly in both groups. Compared to the NIVC group, the kyphotic angle in the IVC group increased more significantly within 1 year after surgery. The volume of bone cement injected in the IVC group was larger and consequent. The IVC group had higher incidence of bone cement leakage than the NIVC group, but there was no statistic difference between two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that unilateral PKP was a safe and reliable treatment for OVCFs with IVC. However, the IVC group had higher incidence of bone cement leakage during surgery and more severe KA rebound during the follow-up period. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of bone cement leakage, it is very important to evaluate the pre-operative imaging and inject the cement carefully and repetitiously. When cement leakages are found, injection should be stopped immediately. Longer rehabilitation interventions such as wearing suitable brace, doing exercise to strengthen low-back muscle, and replacing bending with squatting in ordinary living are essential to prevent KA rebound in patients with OVCFs with IVC. However, extended follow-up may be necessary for patients with OVCFs with IVC

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