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The Dilutional Volume Of Morphine And Xylazine Administered Via Caudal Epidural Catheter Affects Cranial Spread Of Analgesia In Healthy Standing Horses – Spinal Injection

The article presents a study that aimed to test the influence of increasing injectate volumes on the regional effects of xylazine and morphine epidural analgesia in horses. The study used six university-owned research/teaching horses and conducted thermal threshold (TT) testing at different locations. The results showed that increasing epidural volume led to a greater cranial spread of analgesic effect. However, it was observed that larger volumes might affect analgesic reliability. The study highlights the importance of considering volume in caudal epidural analgesia in horses

Summarised by Mr Mo Akmal – Lead Spinal Surgeon
The London Spine Unit : best rated spine centre on Harley Street UK

Published article

OBJECTIVE: To test the influence of increasing injectate volumes on the regional effects of xylazine and morphine epidural analgesia, with the hypothesis that increasing volume produces more cranial spread of analgesia as determined by thermal threshold (TT) testing.

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Abstract Objective: To test the influence of increasing injectate volumes on the regional effects of xylazine and morphine epidural analgesia, with the hypothesis that increasing volume produces more cranial spread of analgesia as determined by thermal threshold (TT) testing. Animals: 6 university-owned research/teaching horses (2 mares, 4 geldings) deemed healthy on physical examination and basic,

Abstract

Objective: To test the influence of increasing injectate volumes on the regional effects of xylazine and morphine epidural analgesia, with the hypothesis that increasing volume produces more cranial spread of analgesia as determined by thermal threshold (TT) testing.

Animals: 6 university-owned research/teaching horses (2 mares, 4 geldings) deemed healthy on physical examination and basic lameness evaluation, aged 6-19 years and weighing 420-560 kg, were used in this prospective, randomized, blinded, cross-over experimental study.

Methods: After routine placement of a caudal epidural catheter, all animals were subsequently instrumented with a TT testing system at the withers (Location A), the cranial (Location B), and caudal (Location C) abdominal area, over the tuber coxae (Location D), and the hind limb dorsal pasterns (Location E). All horses underwent five testing cycles with 0.2 mg/kg morphine and 0.2 mg/kg xylazine diluted to 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100 mL. TT testing was performed at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours by blinded investigators.

Results: With increased epidural volume, significantly greater cranial spread of analgesic effect was noted. All epidural volumes caused significant changes in TT testing at location E but only the largest volume resulted in a significant TT testing change at location A.

Clinical relevance: Volume influences the regional effects of caudal epidural analgesia in horses but might affect analgesic reliability.

Keywords: epidural anesthesia; epidural xylazine morphine; regional anesthesia and analgesia; thermal nociceptive threshold testing; thoracic limb analgesia.

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Read the original publication:

The dilutional volume of morphine and xylazine administered via caudal epidural catheter affects cranial spread of analgesia in healthy standing horses

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Abstract Objective: To test the influence of increasing injectate volumes on the regional effects of xylazine and morphine epidural analgesia, with the hypothesis that increasing volume produces more cranial spread of analgesia as determined by thermal threshold (TT) testing. Animals: 6 university-owned research/teaching horses (2 mares, 4 geldings) deemed healthy on physical examination and basic

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