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The current state of minimally invasive spine surgery

Minimally invasive surgery for spinal disorders is predicated on the following basic principles: (1) avoid muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors; (2) do not disrupt tendon attachment sites of key muscles, particularly the origin of the multifidus muscle at the spinous process; (3) use known anatomic neurovascular and muscle compartment planes; and (4) minimize collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The traditional midline posterior approach for lumbar decompression and fusion violates these key principles of minimally invasive surgery. The tendon origin of the multifidus muscle is detached, the surgical corridor is exceedingly wide, and significant muscle crush injury occurs with the use of powerful self-retaining retractors. The combination of these factors leads to well-described changes in muscle physiology and function. Minimally invasive posterior lumbar surgery is performed with table-mounted tubular retractors that focus the surgical dissection to a narrow corridor directly over the surgical target site. The path of the surgical corridor is chosen based on anatomic planes, specifically avoiding injury to the musculotendinous complex and the neurovascular bundle. With these relatively simple modifications in the minimally invasive surgical technique, significant improvements have been achieved in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain, and surgical morbidity. However, minimally invasive surgical techniques remains technically demanding, and a significant complication rate has been reported during a surgeon’s initial learning curve for the procedures. Improvements in surgeon training along with long-term prospective studies will be needed for advancements in this area of spine surgery

Keywords : blood,Bone Screws,Decompression,Surgical,Humans,injuries,Intervertebral Disc,Intervertebral Disc Displacement,Laminectomy,Learning,Learning Curve,Magnetic Resonance Imaging,methods,Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures,Morbidity,Pain,pathology,physiology,Prospective Studies,Scoliosis,Spinal Diseases,Spinal Fusion,Spine,surgery,, State,Minimally,Invasive, hip osteoarthritis

Date of Publication : 2011

Authors : Kim CW;Siemionow K;Anderson DG;Phillips FM;

Organisation : Spine Institute of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

Journal of Publication : Instr Course Lect

Pubmed Link : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21553786

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