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The Anterior Versus Posterior Approach for Interbody Fusion in Patients Who Are Classified as Obese: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 9,021 Patients From a National Database – Lumbar Fusion

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This article, published in Cureus, discusses the comparison of anterior interbody fusion and posterior interbody fusion approaches for lumbar spine interbody fusions. The study utilized the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database to analyze data from 9,021 patients who underwent elective single-level fusion between 2015 and 2019. The study aimed to determine short-term differences in postoperative outcomes between the two approaches, specifically in patients with obesity. The results showed that the anterior approach was associated with a shorter total operation time and lower odds of unplanned reoperation, but it had higher odds of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism compared to the posterior approach. The authors suggest that longer-term studies are needed to further understand these differences and their clinical significance

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Introduction Lumbar spine interbody fusions have been performed to relieve back pain and improve stability due to various underlying pathologies. Anterior interbody fusion and posterior interbody fusion approaches are two main approaches that are classically compared. In an attempt to compare these two approaches to the spine, large retrospective national database reviews have been performed to compare and predict 30-day postoperative outcomes; however, they have conflicting findings. Obesity,…

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Cureus. 2023 Sep 7;15(9):e44861. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44861. eCollection 2023 Sep.ABSTRACTIntroduction Lumbar spine interbody fusions have been performed to relieve back pain and improve stability due to various underlying pathologies. Anterior interbody fusion and posterior interbody fusion approaches are two main approaches that are classically compared. In an attempt to compare these two approaches to the spine,

Cureus. 2023 Sep 7;15(9):e44861. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44861. eCollection 2023 Sep.

ABSTRACT

Introduction Lumbar spine interbody fusions have been performed to relieve back pain and improve stability due to various underlying pathologies. Anterior interbody fusion and posterior interbody fusion approaches are two main approaches that are classically compared. In an attempt to compare these two approaches to the spine, large retrospective national database reviews have been performed to compare and predict 30-day postoperative outcomes; however, they have conflicting findings. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2may also contribute to the extent of spine pathology and is associated with increased rates of postoperative complications. Complication rates in patients who are obese have yet to be thoroughly investigated using a large national database. Our present investigation aims to make this comparison using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. The goal of the present study is to utilize a nationwide prospective database to determine short-term differences in postoperative outcomes between posterior and anterior lumbar fusion in patients with obesity and relate these findings to previous studies in the general population. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted on 9,021 patient data from the ACS-NSQIP database from 2015 to 2019 who underwent an elective, single-level fusion via anterior or posterior surgical approach. This database captures over 150 clinical variables on individual patient cases, including demographic data, preoperative risk factors and laboratory values, intraoperative data, and significant events up to postoperative day 30. All outcome measures were included in this analysis with special attention to rates of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), prolonged length of stay (LOS), reoperation, and operation time. Results Multivariable analysis controlling for age, BMI, sex, race, functional status, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, and selected comorbidities with P < 0.05 demonstrated that the anterior approach was an independent predictor for all significant outcomes except prolonged length of stay. Compared to the posterior approach, the anterior approach had a shorter total operation time (B = -13.257, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-17.522, -8.992]P < 0.001), higher odds of deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.210, 95% CI [1.211, 4.033]P= 0.010), and higher odds of pulmonary embolism (OR = 2.679, 95% CI [1.311, 5.477]P = 0.007) and was protective against unplanned reoperation (OR = 0.702, 95% CI [0.548, 0.898]P = 0.005). s The obese population makes up a large and growing demographic of those undergoing spine surgery, and as such, it is pertinent to investigate the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of lumbar fusion approaches in this group. While anterior approaches may be protective of longer operation time and unplanned reoperation, this benefit may not be clinically significant when considering an increased risk of DVT and PE. Given the short-term nature of this dataset and the limitations inherent in large de-identified retrospective database studies, these findings are interpreted with caution. Longer-term follow-up studies accounting for confounding variables with spine-centered outcomes will be necessary to further elucidate these nuances.

PMID:37809266 | PMC:PMC10560096 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.44861

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The Anterior Versus Posterior Approach for Interbody Fusion in Patients Who Are Classified as Obese: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 9,021 Patients From a National Database

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Cureus. 2023 Sep 7;15(9):e44861. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44861. eCollection 2023 Sep.ABSTRACTIntroduction Lumbar spine interbody fusions have been performed to relieve back pain and improve stability due to various underlying pathologies. Anterior interbody fusion and posterior interbody fusion approaches are two main approaches that are classically compared. In an attempt to compare these two approaches to the spine

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