Differences between soft-disc herniation and spondylosis in cervical arthroplasty: CT-documented heterotopic ossification with minimum 2 years of follow-up.

By London Spine
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Differences between soft-disc herniation and spondylosis in cervical arthroplasty: CT-documented heterotopic ossification with minimum 2 years of follow-up.

J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Feb;16(2):163-71

Authors: Wu JC, Huang WC, Tu TH, Tsai HW, Ko CC, Wu CL, Cheng H

Abstract
OBJECT: Cervical arthroplasty is a valid option for patients with single-level symptomatic cervical disc diseases causing neural tissue compression, but postoperative heterotopic ossification (HO) can limit the mobility of an artificial disc. In the present study the authors used CT scanning to assess HO formation, and they investigated differences in radiological and clinical outcomes in patients with either a soft-disc herniation or spondylosis who underwent cervical arthroplasty.
METHODS: Medical records, radiographs, and clinical evaluations of consecutive patients who underwent single-level cervical arthroplasty were reviewed. Arthroplasty was performed using the Bryan disc. The patients were divided into a soft-disc herniation group and a spondylosis group. Clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), whereas HO grading was determined by studying CT scans. Radiological and clinical outcomes were analyzed, and the minimum follow-up duration was 24 months.
RESULTS: Forty-seven consecutive patients underwent a single-level cervical arthroplasty. Forty patients (85.1%) had complete radiological evaluations and clinical follow-up of more than 2 years. Patients were divided into 1 of 2 groups: soft-disc herniation (16 cases) and the spondylosis group (24 cases). Their mean age was 45.51 ± 11.12 years. Sixteen patients (40%) were female. Patients in the soft-disc herniation group were younger than those in the spondylosis group, but the difference was not statistically significant (42.88 vs 47.26, p = 0.227). The mean follow-up duration was 38.83 ± 9.74 months. Sex, estimated blood loss, implant size, and perioperative NSAID prescription were not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.792, 0.267, 0.581, and 1.000, respectively). The soft-disc herniation group had significantly less HO formation than the spondylosis group (1 HO [6.25%] vs 14 Hos [58.33%], p = 0.001). Almost all artificial discs in both groups remained mobile (100% and 95.8%, p = 0.408). The clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the groups at all postoperative time points of evaluation, and clinical improvements were also similar.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes of single-level cervical arthroplasty for soft-disc herniation and spondylosis were similar 3 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher rate of HO formation in patients with spondylosis than in those with a soft-disc herniation. The mobility of the artificial disc is maintained, but the long-term effects of HO and its higher frequency in spondylotic cases warrant further investigation.

PMID: 22136390 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Multilevel arthroplasty for cervical spondylosis: more heterotopic ossification at 3 years of follow-up.

By London Spine
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Multilevel arthroplasty for cervical spondylosis: more heterotopic ossification at 3 years of follow-up.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Sep 15;37(20):E1251-9

Authors: Wu JC, Huang WC, Tsai TY, Fay LY, Ko CC, Tu TH, Wu CL, Cheng H

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences between single- and multilevel degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) treated with cervical arthroplasty.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The US Food and Drug Administration clinical trials compared arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for single-level DDD. However, cervical arthroplasty for multilevel DDD is rarely addressed in the literature.
METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive patients who underwent Bryan arthroplasty were divided into either a single- or multilevel group. Clinical outcomes were measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) of neck and arm, and by the neck disability index with a minimum follow-up of 25 months. Every patient had radiographical evaluations, and computed tomography.
RESULTS: Eighty-six patients (84.3%) completed the follow-up with a mean time of 38.3 ± 8.7 months. Postoperatively, there were significant improvements in clinical outcomes (i.e., VAS neck, VAS arm, and neck disability index) at each time point of evaluation (i.e., 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24 mo postoperation). The sex composition and clinical outcome improvements between the single- and multilevel groups were not significantly different. The multilevel group was older (51.3 ± 8.6 vs. 46.3 ± 11.2 yr; P = 0.02), had more intraoperative blood loss (218.0 ± 182.4 vs. 102.8 ± 79.2 mL; P = 0.001), and demonstrated a higher rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) than the single-level group (66.0% vs. 25.0%; P < 0.001). The majority (97.7%) of the artificial discs in this series remained mobile despite HO.
CONCLUSION: Clinical outcomes of cervical arthroplasty in multilevel spondylosis are similar to single-level outcomes. However, the significantly higher rate of HO found in multilevel arthroplasty and its long-term effect warrant further investigation.

PMID: 22739672 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish) resulting in adjacent segment disease.

By London Spine
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Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish) resulting in adjacent segment disease.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2012 Mar-Apr;53(2):128-34

Authors: Ortega M, Gonçalves R, Haley A, Wessmann A, Penderis J

Abstract
Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are usually incidental findings and in most dogs are either asymptomatic or associated with mild clinical signs. Severe spondylosis deformans and DISH can result in complete bony fusion of consecutive vertebral segments. One of the recognised complications following vertebral fusion in human patients is the development of adjacent segment disease, which is defined as degenerative changes, most commonly degenerative intervertebral disc disease, in the mobile vertebral segment neighboring a region of complete vertebral fusion. A similar syndrome following cervical fusion in dogs has been termed the domino effect. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the hypothesis that vertebral fusion occurring secondary to spondylosis deformans or DISH in dogs would protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration, but result in adjacent segment disease at neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc spaces. Eight dogs with clinical signs of thoracolumbar myelopathy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar vertebral column, and spondylosis deformans or DISH producing fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces were evaluated. Vertebral fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces was correlated (P = 0.0017) with adjacent segment disease at the neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc space. Vertebral fusion appeared to protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration (P < 0.0001). Adjacent segment disease should be considered in dogs with severe spondylosis deformans or DISH occurring in conjunction with a thoracolumbar myelopathy.

PMID: 22734148 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]