Long-term mortality following fractures at different skeletal sites: a population-based cohort study.

By London Spine
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Long-term mortality following fractures at different skeletal sites: a population-based cohort study.

Osteoporos Int. 2012 Dec 5;

Authors: Melton LJ, Achenbach SJ, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, Amin S

Abstract
Adjusting for age, sex, and precipitating cause, the relative risk of death was increased following fractures at most skeletal sites. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine long-term survival following fractures due to any cause at each skeletal site. METHODS: In a historical cohort study, 2,901 Olmsted County, MN, USA, residents ≥35 years old who experienced any fracture in 1989-1991 were followed passively for up to 22 years for death from any cause. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) compared observed to expected deaths. RESULTS: During 38,818 person-years of follow-up, 1,420 deaths were observed when 1,191 were expected (SMR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.3). The overall SMR was greatest soon after fracture, especially among the men, but remained elevated for over a decade thereafter. Adjusting for age and sex, relative death rates were greater for pathological fractures and less for severe trauma fractures compared to the fractures due to no more than moderate trauma. In the latter group, long-term mortality was increased following fractures at many skeletal sites. After further adjustment for precipitating cause, overall SMRs were elevated not only following fractures at the traditional major osteoporotic sites (i.e., distal forearm, proximal humerus, thoracic/lumbar vertebrae, and proximal femur) combined (SMR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.3) but also following all other fracture types combined (SMR 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.4), excluding the hand and foot fractures not associated with any increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of increased mortality long after the occurrence of a fracture has generally been attributed to underlying comorbidity, but this needs to be defined in much greater detail if specific opportunities are to be identified for reducing the excess deaths observed.

PMID: 23212281 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish) resulting in adjacent segment disease.

By London Spine
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Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish) resulting in adjacent segment disease.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2012 Mar-Apr;53(2):128-34

Authors: Ortega M, Gonçalves R, Haley A, Wessmann A, Penderis J

Abstract
Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are usually incidental findings and in most dogs are either asymptomatic or associated with mild clinical signs. Severe spondylosis deformans and DISH can result in complete bony fusion of consecutive vertebral segments. One of the recognised complications following vertebral fusion in human patients is the development of adjacent segment disease, which is defined as degenerative changes, most commonly degenerative intervertebral disc disease, in the mobile vertebral segment neighboring a region of complete vertebral fusion. A similar syndrome following cervical fusion in dogs has been termed the domino effect. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the hypothesis that vertebral fusion occurring secondary to spondylosis deformans or DISH in dogs would protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration, but result in adjacent segment disease at neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc spaces. Eight dogs with clinical signs of thoracolumbar myelopathy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar vertebral column, and spondylosis deformans or DISH producing fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces were evaluated. Vertebral fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces was correlated (P = 0.0017) with adjacent segment disease at the neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc space. Vertebral fusion appeared to protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration (P < 0.0001). Adjacent segment disease should be considered in dogs with severe spondylosis deformans or DISH occurring in conjunction with a thoracolumbar myelopathy.

PMID: 22734148 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]