Prevalence of known and unknown primary tumor sites in spinal metastasis patients.

By London Spine
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Prevalence of known and unknown primary tumor sites in spinal metastasis patients.

Open Orthop J. 2012;6:440-4

Authors: Paholpak P, Sirichativapee W, Wisanuyotin T, Kosuwon W, Jeeravipoolvarn P

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study.
OBJECTIVES: THREE OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN DESIGNATED FOR THIS STUDY: (1) to determine the prevalence of identifiable and non-identifiable primary tumor sites in patients with spinal metastasis, (2) to identify the most common site of the known primary tumor sites, and (3) to identify the factors associated with survival time.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The spine is the third most common metastatic site for several primary visceral carcinomas. The primary tumor site could not be identified in 15% to 20% of patients who had been diagnosed of with a skeletal metastasis. Most of the previous studies on skeletal metastasis have not been limited to spinal metastasis alone.
METHODS: Between January 2007 and July 2011 reviews were done for 82 patients with spinal metastasis who had not received a previous diagnosis of carcinoma. The assessment parameters included the following: general demographic data, Karnofsky score, Frankel score, number of spinal vertebra affected, region of the spine affected by metastasis, other skeletal metastasis site, visceral metastasis, known or unknown primary sites of metastasis, histological cell type of metastasis, and the survival period. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used to study the survival analysis.
RESULTS: Of the 82 patients included in the study, 56 were male. The mean age was 57 years. 86.6% had a known primary carcinoma site while the remaining 13.4% had none. The two most common known carcinoma sites were the lung and biliary systems. Among the 11 unknown primary sites, the most common histological finding was adenocarcinoma. The mean survival period was 8.7 ± 11.7 months. The survival analysis revealed two statistically significant factors: the primary tumor site’s aggressiveness (P<0.005) and the presence of visceral metastasis (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of identifiable primary site was 86.6% and the most common site was the lungs followed by the biliary system. The primary carcinoma site’s aggressiveness and the presence of visceral metastasis were the factors associated with patient survival.

PMID: 23115604 [PubMed]

Long-term mortality following fractures at different skeletal sites: a population-based cohort study.

By London Spine
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Long-term mortality following fractures at different skeletal sites: a population-based cohort study.

Osteoporos Int. 2012 Dec 5;

Authors: Melton LJ, Achenbach SJ, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, Amin S

Abstract
Adjusting for age, sex, and precipitating cause, the relative risk of death was increased following fractures at most skeletal sites. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine long-term survival following fractures due to any cause at each skeletal site. METHODS: In a historical cohort study, 2,901 Olmsted County, MN, USA, residents ≥35 years old who experienced any fracture in 1989-1991 were followed passively for up to 22 years for death from any cause. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) compared observed to expected deaths. RESULTS: During 38,818 person-years of follow-up, 1,420 deaths were observed when 1,191 were expected (SMR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.3). The overall SMR was greatest soon after fracture, especially among the men, but remained elevated for over a decade thereafter. Adjusting for age and sex, relative death rates were greater for pathological fractures and less for severe trauma fractures compared to the fractures due to no more than moderate trauma. In the latter group, long-term mortality was increased following fractures at many skeletal sites. After further adjustment for precipitating cause, overall SMRs were elevated not only following fractures at the traditional major osteoporotic sites (i.e., distal forearm, proximal humerus, thoracic/lumbar vertebrae, and proximal femur) combined (SMR, 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.3) but also following all other fracture types combined (SMR 1.2; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.4), excluding the hand and foot fractures not associated with any increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of increased mortality long after the occurrence of a fracture has generally been attributed to underlying comorbidity, but this needs to be defined in much greater detail if specific opportunities are to be identified for reducing the excess deaths observed.

PMID: 23212281 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]