[Multisegmental en bloc spondylectomy. Indications, staging and surgical technique].
Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2012 Jul;24(3):272-83
Authors: Druschel C, Disch AC, Melcher I, Luzzati A, Haas NP, Schaser KD
OBJECTIVE: Description of the surgical technique including approaches and spinal reconstruction principles for patients scheduled for multilevel en bloc excision of vertebral tumors (multisegmental total en bloc spondylectomy) with the aim to attain tumor-free margins and minimize the risk of local and systemic tumor recurrence. Restoration of biomechanically sufficient spinal stability. Functional preservation and/or regaining of adequate neurological function. INDICATIONS: Primary malignant and benign, aggressive spinal tumors. Solitary metastatic tumors of biologically and prognostically favorable primary tumor (good prognostic scores). Extracompartmental, multisegmental vertebral tumor manifestations according to Tomita type 6. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Diffuse spinal/vertebral tumor spread according to Tomita type 7 (disseminated spinal metastatic disease). Detection of distant metastases in the staging investigation. Biologically unfavorable tumor entities or primary systemic malignant tumors/diffuse disseminated malignoma (Tomita score < 4-5 points, Tokuhashi score < 12 points). SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Depending on tumor growth, sequential performance of the anterior and posterior approach for local tumor release and preparation/replacement of encased large vessels. Posterior approach via dorsomedial incision and exposure of the posterior vertebral elements. Costotransversectomy, resection of the facets, resection of paravertebral rib segments. Laminectomy in the tumor-free lamina segment, resection of the ligamentum flavum and paradural ligation of affected nerve roots, bilateral ligation of the segmental arteries. Digital extrapleural palpation and dissection to the anterior vertebral body parts. Insertion of S-shaped spatulas ventral to the anterior aspect of the spine, and dissection of the disc spaces and the posterior longitudinal ligament. Instrumentation of pedicle screws and unilateral rod fixation, mobilization and careful, manual turning out/rotation of the affected vertebral segments around the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord. Interpositioning of a carbon-composite cage from posterior filled with autologous bone. Completion of the posterior stabilization, soft tissue closure, Goretex patch fixation if required in cases of chest wall resections. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Intensive care monitoring with balanced volume replacement/transfusion. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, depending on the protocol and resection margins.
PMID: 22743631 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]