Use of a new ICG-dye-enhanced diode laser for percutaneous laser disc decompression

By London Spine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The lasers used today for Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD) can not selectively ablate the nucleus pulposus (NP). We hypothesized that if indocyanine green dye were injected into the NP, 805 nm diode laser irradiation would result in selective and safe removal of NP tissue without damaging nearby tissues. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve beagle dogs were used for three experiments, i.e., determination of attenuation coefficients of NP and AF, determination of weight of NP before and after laser irradiation, and histopathological study. RESULTS: The attenuation coefficient at 805 nm of NP which had been homogenized in the presence of ICG was 2521.3/cm. Upon application of the diode laser at a power of 1, 3, or 5 W (the intensity of laser irradiation: 0.353, 1.061, or 1.768 x 10(3) W/cm(2)) to NPs into which ICG had been injected, the weight of the NPs decreased by a mean 20, 45, and 65%, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the discs after PLDD showed that only the NP where the tissues were stained by ICG were removed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the combined use of ICG and diode laser irradiation effectively and selectively ablates the NP with low laser power

Impact of infrared laser light-induced ablation at different wavelengths on bovine intervertebral disc ex vivo: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging and histology

By London Spine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous laser disc decompression is commonly used to lower high pressure in the nucleus pulposus in degenerative disc diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diode laser disc decompression at different wavelengths (980-nm vs. 1,470-nm, i.e., different water absorption characteristics). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To model decompression, a flexible laser quartz fiber inserted into the nucleus pulposus of ex vivo bovine spines using computer-assisted surgical navigation was utilized to vaporize tissue. The same energy (500 J) was delivered using both 980-nm and 1,470-nm wavelength lasers. To determine the different impact of the wavelengths before and after the procedure we evaluated the discs with MRI (T(1), T(2), diffusion maps) and with histopathology. RESULTS: There were no visible changes on T(1) and T(2) maps after 1,470-nm wavelength laser irradiation; however, the 980-nm wavelength caused significant changes on T(1) (decrease) and T(2) (increase) in the vaporization zone at the site of the quartz fiber. Pathological findings showed carbonization and steam-bubble formation in addition to the T(1) and T(2) changes. No significant changes were detected in the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in intervertebral disc with the 980-nm wavelength, but significant ADC and T(1) signal increase was detected with the 1,470-nm wavelength when the whole nucleus pulposus was considered. CONCLUSION: The 1,470-nm laser light had an effect in the whole nucleus pulposus and not only at the site of the quartz fiber, whereas with the 980-nm laser irradiation, significant changes were demonstrated only at the application site

The influence of Ho:YAG laser irradiation on intervertebral disc cells

By London Spine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various types of laser have been reported for percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). The aim of this study was to understand the effects on intervertebral disc cells following Ho:YAG laser irradiation, using a three-dimensional culture model, and consider appropriate irradiation conditions. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intervertebral discs from the lumbar spine were obtained from 36 female Japanese white rabbits and processed to obtain isolated cells in three-dimensional cultures. Photoacoustic and photothermal effects were investigated by irradiating three-dimensional cultures with Ho:YAG laser at 27 or 54 J. Residual cell counts after irradiation were estimated based on DNA content according to fluorometric assay. Lactate dehydrogenase levels were also investigated as a marker of damage to cell plasma membranes. Finally, proteoglycan synthesis was measured by rapid filtration assay of (35) S incorporation, as an index of matrix synthesis. RESULTS: Residual cell count tended to be higher in the 27-J group. Plasma membrane damage was higher and remained high longer after irradiation in the 54-J group. Proteoglycan synthesis was higher in the 27-J group than in the 54-J group, with some conditions (e.g., 90 mJ/pulse condition) showing marked activation of proteoglycan synthesis maintained for a long time after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional culture models of intervertebral disc cells are useful for clarifying relationships between cell reactions and photoacoustic and photothermal effects after laser irradiation. Total energy is closely related to optimization of irradiation conditions, which may allow optimization of cytoprotection and promotion of matrix synthesis in clinical practice