Production and expression of RANTES (CCL5) by human disc cells and modulation by IL-1-? and TNF-? in 3D culture.
Production and expression of RANTES (CCL5) by human disc cells and modulation by IL-1-β and TNF-α in 3D culture.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Jan 24;
Authors: Gruber HE, Hoelscher GL, Ingram JA, Bethea S, Norton HJ, Hanley EN
Chemokines act as important secondary inflammatory mediators which are released by cells in response to a variety of stimuli. Chemokines bind to cell surface receptors and act as second-order cytokines with specialized functions in inflammation. The role of RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted) (also called CCL5 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5)) has received little attention to date in disc tissue. Microarray analyses of lumbar disc annulus tissue revealed that RANTES expression was significantly upregulated in more degenerated Thompson grades IV and V discs compared to expression levels in grades I, II and III discs (p=0.032). Immunolocalization confirmed the presence of RANTES in the annulus and nucleus of the disc, and localized the RANTES receptors CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5 to cells in the disc. In vitro studies with IL-1-β and TNF-α challenges, both proinflammatory cytokines resulted in elevated levels of RANTES in conditioned media (p<0.01); TNF-α exposure, however, produced significantly greater levels than did IL-1alpha (p<0.0001), suggesting a differential regulation by TNF-α. Local production of RANTES in vivo by annulus and nucleus cells, and in vitro induction of RANTES by proinflammatory cytokines suggest that disc cells are primary effector cells as well as target cells, and thus can mediate physiological immune-related processes during disc degeneration by both autocrine and paracrine signaling.
PMID: 24468005 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]