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Polymethylmethacrylate distribution is associated with recompression after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: A retrospective study

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, always accompanied with pain and height loss of vertebral body, has a significant negative impact on life quality of patients. Vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty is minimal invasive techniques to reconstruct the vertebral height and prevent further collapse of the fractured vertebrae by injecting polymethylmethacrylate into vertebral body. However, recompression of polymethylmethacrylate augmented vertebrae with significant vertebral height loss and aggressive local kyphotic was observed frequently after VP or KP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polymethylmethacrylate distribution on recompression of the vertebral body after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty surgery for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. METHODS: A total of 281 patients who were diagnosed with vertebral compression fracture (T5-L5) from June 2014 to June 2016 and underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty by polymethylmethacrylate were retrospectively analyzed. The X-ray films at 1 day and 12 months after surgery were compared to evaluate the recompression of operated vertebral body. Patients were divided into those without recompression (non-recompression group) and those with recompression (recompression group). Polymethylmethacrylate distribution pattern, including location and relationship to endplates, was compared between the two groups by lateral X-ray film. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the potential risk factors associated with polymethylmethacrylate distribution for recompression. RESULTS: One hundred and six (37.7%) patients experienced recompression after surgery during the follow-up period. The polymethylmethacrylate distributed in the middle of vertebral body showed significant differences between two groups. In non-recompression group, the polymethylmethacrylate in the middle portion of vertebral body were closer to endplates than that in the recompression group (upper: t = 31.41, p<0.001; lower: t = 12.19, p<0.001). The higher percentage of the height of polymethylmethacrylate in the middle portion of vertebral body indicates the lower risk of recompression (odds ratio [OR]<0.01, p<0.001). The recompression group and non-recompression group showed significant difference in ‘contacted’ polymethylmethacrylate distribution pattern (polymethylmethacrylate contacted to the both upper/lower endplates) (chi2 = 66.23, p<0.001). The vertebra with a ‘contacted’ polymethylmethacrylate distribution pattern has lower risk of recompression (OR = 0.09, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Either more polymethylmethacrylate in the middle portion of vertebral body or ‘contacted’ polymethylmethacrylate distribution pattern had a significantly less incidence of recompression. The findings indicated that the control of polymethylmethacrylate distribution during surgery may reduce the risks of recompression after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty

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