Exposure to ozone results in an increased production of free radicals which causes oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ozone exposure on motor behavior and its correlation with the cytology of the striatum and prefrontal cortex. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were exposed to 1 p.p.m. (parts per million) ozone for 4 hrs in a closed chamber. Control group was exposed to flowing air. Twenty-four hours after ozone exposure, the motor behavior was measured. After that, the animals were perfused and the brains were placed in Golgi stain. The analysis consisted in counting the dendritic spines in 5 secondary and 5 tertiary dendrites of each of the 20 medium size spiny neurons of striatum and 20 pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex analyzed. Our results showed alterations in motor behavior and a significant reduction of dendritic spines, and provided evidence that the deterioration in motor behavior is probably due to the reduction in spine density in the neurons of striatum and prefrontal cortex.