Exposure to ozone results in an increased production of free radicals which causes oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ozone exposure on memory and its correlation with the cytology of the hippocampus. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were exposed to 1 ppm (parts per million) ozone for 4 h in a closed chamber. Control group was exposed to flowing air. After ozone exposure, the rats were given long-term (24 h) memory training which consists of a passive avoidance conditioning. After that the animals were perfused and the brains were placed in the Golgi stain. The analysis consisted in counting the dendritic spines in five secondary and five tertiary dendrites of each of the 20 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus CA1 analyzed. Our results showed alterations on long-term memory and a significant reduction of dendritic spines, and provided evidence that this deterioration in memory is probably due to the reduction in spine density in the pyramidal neurons of hippocampus.