Nerve injuries can be life-long debilitating traumas that severely impact patients’ quality of life. While many acellular neural scaffolds have been developed to aid the process of nerve regeneration, complete functional recovery is still very difficult to achieve, especially for long-gap peripheral nerve injury and most cases of spinal cord injury. Cell-based therapies have shown many promising results for improving nerve regeneration. With recent advances in neural tissue engineering, the integration of biomaterial scaffolds and cell transplantation are emerging as a more promising approach to enhance nerve regeneration. This review provides an overview of important considerations for designing cell-carrier biomaterial scaffolds. It also discusses current biomaterials used for scaffolds that provide permissive and instructive microenvironments for improved cell transplantation.