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Fat Infiltration Of Paraspinal Muscles As An Independent Risk For Bone Nonunion After Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion London Spine

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Published article

CONCLUSIONS: Higher fatty degeneration was strongly associated with bone nonunion after PLIF. Surgeons should pay attention to the FI of paraspinal muscles when performing posterior surgery for patients, especially those who need short-segment fusion or to extend fusion to S1.
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Abstract

Background: The prognosis value of paraspinal muscle degeneration on clinical outcomes has been revealed. However no study has investigated the effect of the fat infiltration (FI) of paraspinal muscles on bone nonunion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF).

Methods: Three hundred fifty-one patients undergoing PLIF for lumbar spinal stenosis with 1-year follow-up were retrospectively identified. Patients were categorized into bone union (n = 301) and bone nonunion (n = 50) groups based on dynamic X-ray at 1-year follow-up. The relative total cross-sectional area (rTCSA) and FI of multifidus (MF) and erector spinae (ES), and the relative functional CSA (rFCSA) of psoas major (PS) were measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: The nonunion group had a significantly higher MF FI and a higher ES FI and a smaller MF rTCSA than the union group (p = 0.001, 0.038, 0.026, respectively). Binary logistic regression revealed that MF FI (p = 0.029, odds ratio [OR] = 1.04), lumbosacral fusion (p = 0.026, OR = 2193) and length of fusion (p = 0.001, OR = 1.99) were independent factors of bone nonunion. In subgroup analysis, in one or two-level fusion group, the patients with nonunion had a higher MF FI and a higher ES FI than those of the patients with union (all p < 0.05). Similarly, in lumbosacral fusion group, the patients with nonunion had a higher MF FI and a higher ES FI than those of the patients with union (all p < 0.05). The logistic regressions showed that MF FI remained an independent factor of bone nonunion both in the patients with one or two-level fusion (p = 0.003, OR = 1.074) and in the patients with lumbosacral fusion (p = 0.006, OR = 1.073).

Conclusions: Higher fatty degeneration was strongly associated with bone nonunion after PLIF. Surgeons should pay attention to the FI of paraspinal muscles when performing posterior surgery for patients, especially those who need short-segment fusion or to extend fusion to S1.

Keywords: Bone nonunion; Fat infiltration; Paraspinal muscle; Posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

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Fat infiltration of paraspinal muscles as an independent risk for bone nonunion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion

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Abstract Background: The prognosis value of paraspinal muscle degeneration on clinical outcomes has been revealed. However no study has investigated the effect of the fat infiltration (FI) of paraspinal muscles on bone nonunion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods: Three hundred fifty-one patients undergoing PLIF for lumbar spinal stenosis with 1-year follow-up were retrospectively…

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