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Direct inhibition of Ih by analgesic loperamide in rat DRG neurons

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are responsible for the functional hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, playing an important role in pain processing. We found that the known analgesic loperamide inhibited I(h) channels in rat DRG neurons. Loperamide blocked I(h) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC(50) = 4.9 +/- 0.6 and 11.0 +/- 0.5 microM for large- and small-diameter neurons, respectively. Loperamide-induced I(h) inhibition was unrelated to the activation of opioid receptors and was reversible, voltage-dependent, use-independent, and was associated with a negative shift of V(1/2) for I(h) steady-state activation. Loperamide block of I(h) was voltage-dependent, gradually decreasing at more hyperpolarized membrane voltages from 89% at -60 mV to 4% at -120 mV in the presence of 3.7 microM loperamide. The voltage sensitivity of block can be explained by a loperamide-induced shift in the steady-state activation of I(h). Inclusion of 10 microM loperamide into the recording pipette did not affect I(h) voltage for half-maximal activation, activation kinetics, and the peak current amplitude, whereas concurrent application of equimolar external loperamide produced a rapid, reversible I(h) inhibition. The observed loperamide-induced I(h) inhibition was not caused by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors because the broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist naloxone did not reverse I(h) inhibition. Therefore we suggest that loperamide inhibits I(h) by direct binding to the extracellular region of the channel. Because I(h) channels are involved in pain processing, loperamide-induced inhibition of I(h) channels could provide an additional molecular mechanism for its analgesic action

Keywords : Analgesics,Animals,Cells,Cultured,Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels,cytology,Dose-Response Relationship,Drug,Dose-Response Relationship,Radiation,drug effects,Drug Interactions,Electric Stimulation,Ganglia,Spinal,Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels,Kinetics,Loperamide,Membrane Potentials,metabolism,methods,Naloxone,Narcotic Antagonists,Neural Inhibition,Neurons,Pain,Patch-Clamp Techniques,pharmacology,physiology,Potassium Channels,radiation effects,Rats,Rats,Wistar,, Inhibition,Ih,By,Analgesic, private clinics in london

Date of Publication : 2007 May

Authors : Vasilyev DV;Shan Q;Lee Y;Mayer SC;Bowlby MR;Strassle BW;Kaftan EJ;Rogers KE;Dunlop J;

Organisation : Discovery Neuroscience, Wyeth Research, CN 8000, Princeton, NJ 08543-8000, USA. vasylyd@wyeth.com

Journal of Publication : J Neurophysiol

Pubmed Link : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17392420

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