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Diagnostic algorithm, prognostic factors and surgical treatment of metastatic cancer diseases of the long bones and spine.

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Diagnostic algorithm, prognostic factors and surgical treatment of metastatic cancer diseases of the long bones and spine.

EFORT Open Rev. 2017 Sep;2(9):372-381

Authors: Szendr?i M, Antal I, Szendr?i A, Lazáry Á, Varga PP

Abstract
Oncological management of skeletal metastases has changed dramatically in the last few decades. A significant number of patients survive for many years with their metastases.Surgeons are more active and the technical repertoire is broader, from plates to intramedullary devices to (tumour) endoprostheses.The philosophy of treatment should be different in the case of a trauma-related fracture and a pathological fracture. A proper algorithm for establishing a diagnosis and evaluation of prognostic factors helps in planning the surgical intervention.The aim of palliative surgery is usually to eliminate pain and to allow the patient to regain his/her mobility as well as to improve the quality of life through minimally invasive techniques using life-long durable devices.In a selected group of patients with an oncologically controlled primary tumour site and a solitary bone metastasis with positive prognostic factors, which meet the criteria for radical excision (approximately 10% to 15% of the cases), a promising three to five years of survival may be achieved, especially in cases of metastases from breast and kidney cancer.Spinal metastases require meticulous evaluation because decisions on treatment mostly depend on the tumour type, segmental stability, the patient’s symptoms and general state of health.Advanced radiotherapy combined with minimally invasive surgical techniques (minimally invasive stabilisation and separation surgery) provides durable local control with a low complication rate in a number of patients. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:372-381.

PMID: 29071122 [PubMed]

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