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Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures among people with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures among people with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 May;133(5):341-51

Authors: Solmi M, Veronese N, Correll CU, Favaro A, Santonastaso P, Caregaro L, Vancampfort D, Luchini C, De Hert M, Stubbs B

OBJECTIVE: To provide meta-analytical evidence of bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and osteoporosis rates in eating disorders (ED) vs. healthy controls (HCs).
METHOD: Three independent authors searched major electronic databases from inception till August 2015 for cross-sectional studies reporting BMD in people with ED (anorexia nervosa, (AN); bulimia nervosa, (BN); eating disorders not otherwise specified, (EDNOS)) vs. HCs. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for BMD, and odds ratios (ORs) for osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures.
RESULTS: Overall, 57 studies were eligible, including 21 607 participants (ED = 6485, HCs = 15 122). Compared to HC, AN subjects had significantly lower BMD values at lumbar spine (SMD = -1.51, 95% CI = -1.75, -1.27, studies = 42), total hip (SMD = -1.56, 95%CI = -1.84, -1.28, studies = 23), intertrochanteric region (SMD = -1.80, 95%CI = -2.46, -1.14, studies = 7), trochanteric region (SMD = -1.05, 95%CI = -1.44, -0.66, studies = 7), and femoral neck (SMD = -0.98, 95%CI = -1.12, -0.77, studies = 20). Reduced BMD was moderated by ED illness duration and amenorrhea (P < 0.05). AN was associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis (OR = 12.59, 95%CI = 3.30-47.9, P < 0.001, studies = 4) and fractures (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.17-2.89, I(2) = 56, studies = 6). No difference in BMD was found between BN and EDNOS vs. HC.
CONCLUSION: People with AN have reduced BMD, increased odds of osteoporosis and risk of fractures. Proactive monitoring and interventions are required to ameliorate bone loss in AN.

PMID: 26763350 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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