Anatomical and technical factors associated with superior facet joint violation in lumbar fusion.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Dec 08;:1-8
Authors: Teles AR, Paci M, Gutman G, Abduljabbar FH, Ouellet JA, Weber MH, Golan JD
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and surgical risk factors for screw-related facet joint violation at the superior level in lumbar fusion. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of a consecutive series of posterior lumbar instrumented fusions performed by a single surgeon. Inclusion criteria were primary lumbar fusion of 1 or 2 levels for degenerative disorders. The following variables were analyzed as possible risk factors: surgical technique (percutaneous vs open screw placement), depth of surgical field, degree of anterior slippage of the superior level, pedicle and facet angle, and facet degeneration of the superior level. Postoperative CT scans were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. Axial, sagittal, and coronal views were reviewed. Pedicle screws were graded as intra-articular if they clearly interposed between the superior and inferior facet joints of the superior level. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with this complication. RESULTS One hundred thirty-one patients were included. Interobserver reliability for facet joint violation assessment was high (? = 0.789). The incidence of superior facet joint violation was 12.59% per top-level screw (33 of 262 proximal screws). The rate of facet violation was 28.0% in the percutaneous technique group (14 of 50 patients) and 12.3% in the open surgery group (10 of 81 patients) (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.09-4.21; p = 0.024). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of facet violation were percutaneous screw placement (adjusted OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.42-7.73; p = 0.006), right-side pedicle screw (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.29-7.63; p = 0.011), and facet angle > 45° (adjusted OR 10.95, 95% CI 4.64-25.84; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of facet joint violation was higher in percutaneous minimally invasive than in open technique for posterior lumbar spine surgery. Also, coronal orientation of the facet joint is a significant risk factor independent of the surgical technique.
PMID: 29219780 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]