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Accuracy Evaluation of a Novel Spinal Robotic System for Autonomous Laminectomy in Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae: A Cadaveric Study Research Article

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Published article

CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed the accuracy of this robotic system, supporting its use for laminectomy of thoracolumbar vertebrae.
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J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2023 Mar 21. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.22.01320. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main function of robots in spine surgery is to assist with pedicle screw placement. Laminectomy, which is as important as pedicle screw placement, lacks a mature robot-assisted system. The aims of this study were to introduce the first autonomous laminectomy robot, to explore the feasibility of autonomous robotic laminectomy, and to validate its accuracy using a cadaveric model.

METHODS: Forty vertebrae from 4 cadavers were included in the study; 7 thoracic and 3 lumbar vertebrae were randomly selected in each cadaver. The surgeon was able to plan the laminectomy path based on computed tomographic (CT) data before the surgical procedure. The robot performed the laminectomy autonomously, and a postoperative CT scan was made. The deviation of each cutting plane from the plan was quantitatively analyzed, and the accuracy and safety were qualitatively evaluated. The time required for the laminectomy was also recorded.

RESULTS: Cuts were performed in 80 laminectomy planes (56 for thoracic vertebrae and 24 for lumbar vertebrae). The mean time for 1-sided laminectomy was 333.59 ± 116.49 seconds, which was shorter for thoracic vertebrae (284.41 ± 66.04 seconds) than lumbar vertebrae (448.33 ± 128.65 seconds) (p < 0.001). The mean time for single-level total laminectomy was 814.05 ± 302.23 seconds, which was also shorter for thoracic vertebrae (690.46 ± 165.74 seconds) than lumbar vertebrae (1,102.42 ± 356.13 seconds) (p = 0.002). The mean deviation of the cutting plane from the plan was 0.67 ± 0.30 mm for the most superior cutting point and 0.73 ± 0.31 mm for the most inferior point. There were no significant differences in the deviation between thoracic vertebrae (0.66 ± 0.26 mm) and lumbar vertebrae (0.67 ± 0.38 mm) at the superior cutting point (p = 0.908) and between thoracic vertebrae (0.72 ± 0.30 mm) and lumbar vertebrae (0.73 ± 0.33 mm) at the inferior cutting point (p = 0.923). In the qualitative analysis of the accuracy of the 80 laminectomy planes, 66 (83%) were classified as grade A, 14 (18%) were grade B, and none was grade C. In the safety analysis, 65 planes (81%) were considered safe and the safety of the other 15 planes (19%) was considered uncertain.

CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed the accuracy of this robotic system, supporting its use for laminectomy of thoracolumbar vertebrae.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level V. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

PMID:36943914 | DOI:10.2106/JBJS.22.01320

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Accuracy Evaluation of a Novel Spinal Robotic System for Autonomous Laminectomy in Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae: A Cadaveric Study

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J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2023 Mar 21. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.22.01320. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The main function of robots in spine surgery is to assist with pedicle screw placement. Laminectomy, which is as important as pedicle screw placement, lacks a mature robot-assisted system. The aims of this study were to introduce the first autonomous laminectomy…
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