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Day: February 7, 2019

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis.

By wp_zaman

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis.

Eur Spine J. 1999;8(5):371-81

Authors: Kandziora F, Mittlmeier T, Kerschbaumer F

Thirty-six consecutive patients with cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated surgically according to a stage-related therapeutic concept. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results of these procedures. The initial change in RA of the cervical spine is atlanto-axial instability (AAI) due to incompetence of the cranio-cervical junction ligaments, followed by development of a peridontoid mass of granulation tissue. This results in inflammatory involvement of, and excessive dynamic forces on, the lateral masses of C1 and C2, leading to irreducible atlanto-axial kyphosis (AAK). Finally, cranial settling (CS) accompanied by subaxial subluxation (SAS) occurs. According to these three separate pathological and radiological lesions, the patients were divided into three therapeutic groups. Group I comprised 14 patients with isolated anterior AAI, who were treated by posterior wire fusion. Group II comprised 15 patients with irreducible AAK, who were treated by transoral odontoid resection. The fixation was done using anterior plating according to Harms in combination with posterior wire fusion according to Brooks. Group III comprised seven patients with CS and additional SAS, who were treated with occipito-cervical fusion. Pre- and postoperatively, evaluation was performed using the parameters pain (visual analog scale), range of motion (ROM), subjective improvement and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The neurologic deficit was defined according to the classification proposed by Ranawat. Radiographs including lateral flexion and extension views, and MRI scans were obtained. The average clinical and radiographic follow-up of all patients was 50.7 +/- 19.3 months (range 21-96 months). No perioperative fatality occurred. Postoperative pain was significantly relieved in all groups (P < 0.001). In group II a slight improvement in the HAQ was obtained. In groups I and II the ROM of all patients increased significantly (average gain of motion in group I: 11.3 degrees +/- 7. 8 degrees for rotation; 7.8 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees for bending; average gain of motion in group II: 21.5 degrees +/- 14.0 degrees for rotation; 17.2 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for bending), while it decreased significantly in group III (10.7 degrees +/- 18.1 degrees for rotation; 6.7 degrees +/- 18.5 degrees for bending). Preoperatively 27 patients had a manifest neurologic deficit. At follow-up four patients remained unchanged, all others improved by at least one Ranawat class. All patients, except one, showed solid bony fusion. According to the significantly improved postoperative subjective self-assessment and the clinical and radiological parameters, transoral plate fixation combined with posterior wire fixation after transoral odontoid resection represents an effective reliable and safe procedure for the treatment of irreducible AAK in rheumatoid arthritis.

PMID: 10552320 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Spine Conditions: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

By wp_zaman

Spine Conditions: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.
FP Essent. 2017 Oct;461:21-25
Authors: Trigg SD, Devilbiss Z
Abstract
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent cause of chronic low back and lower extremi…

Long-term survival of an infant with diffuse brainstem lesion diagnosed by prenatal MRI: a case report and review of the literature.

By Kamruz Zaman
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Long-term survival of an infant with diffuse brainstem lesion diagnosed by prenatal MRI: a case report and review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Jun;32(6):1163-8

Authors: Suo-Palosaari M, Rantala H, Lehtinen S, Kumpulainen T, Salokorpi N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We describe a unique case of expansive diffuse brainstem lesion diagnosed prenatally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with long-term survival. Findings of fetal and postpartum MRI were highly consistent with the characteristics of diffuse brainstem glioma.
METHODS: Diagnosis was based on the features of MRI, and histopathology was not confirmed by biopsy. Although the prognosis of diffuse brainstem tumor is usually poor, this child was asymptomatic at birth and the neurological condition is still normal at 4 years of age without any treatment.
RESULTS: During routine imaging follow-up, diameters of the expansion have remained stable, while the size of the lesion compared to the posterior fossa size has diminished. In addition to brainstem tumor, a skin lesion of the back was observed and MRI of the thoracic spine showed a large asymptomatic extradural cystic lesion suggesting an arachnoid cyst. The pontine tumor of this infant, in agreement with a few previously reported cases, suggests a subgroup of beneficial outcome of expansive diffuse brainstem lesions, particularly in the neonatal period.
DISCUSSION: In this article, we discuss the prognosis and characteristics of pediatric brainstem tumors and differential diagnosis of neonatal brainstem lesions.

PMID: 26906478 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

The impact of major operative fractures in blunt abdominal injury.

By wp_zaman
Related Articles

The impact of major operative fractures in blunt abdominal injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 May;74(5):1307-14

Authors: Nahm NJ, Como JJ, Vallier HA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Abdominal injury has been shown to be an independent risk factor for pulmonary complications in patients with extremity injuries. We propose to characterize orthopedic patients with severe abdominal trauma. We hypothesize that operative fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, pelvis, acetabulum, or femur increase systemic complications in patients with blunt abdominal injury.
METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting to a Level I trauma center with abdominal injury between 2000 and 2006 was performed. Adult patients between the ages of 18 years and 65 years with high-energy, blunt trauma resulting in severe abdominal injury (abdomen Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 18 or greater were included. Patients were divided into two comparison groups as follows: the fracture group had operative fractures of the pelvis, acetabulum, thoracolumbar spine, and/or femur, and the control group did not sustain these fractures of interest. Systemic complications were documented. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
RESULTS: The control group included 91 patients, and the fracture group included 106 patients with 136 fractures of interest. With unadjusted analysis, the fracture group had more complications (34% [36 of 106] vs. 18% [16 of 91], p = 0.010), including adult respiratory distress syndrome (8% [8 of 106] vs. 1% [1 of 91], p = 0.040), and sepsis (11% [12 of 106] vs. 3% [3 of 91], p = 0.056). Logistic regression modeling demonstrates that the presence of an operative fracture increased the odds of developing at least one complication approximately three times (odds ratio, 2.88, p = 0.006), after controlling for presence of chest injury and type of injured abdominal organ.
CONCLUSION: Operative fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, pelvis, acetabulum and femur increase the risk of developing systemic complications in patients with blunt abdominal injury. Further study is necessary to optimize treatment protocols for these high-risk patients.

PMID: 23609283 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

By wp_zaman
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Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

Rehabil Res Pract. 2016;2016:6480826

Authors: Bobos P, Billis E, Papanikolaou DT, Koutsojannis C, MacDermid JC

Abstract
Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI) score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67) completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p < 0.05) in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

PMID: 27990302 [PubMed – in process]

Combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of unstable hangman’s fracture: a contrast to anterior approach only.

By wp_zaman
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Combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of unstable hangman’s fracture: a contrast to anterior approach only.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Mar 15;35(6):613-9

Authors: Xie N, Khoo LT, Yuan W, Ye XJ, Chen DY, Xiao JR, Ni B

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study was used to evaluate the effect of a new surgical treatment of the hangman’s fractures.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the treatment efficacy of combined anterior C2-C3 reduction and fusion and posterior compressive C2 pedicle screw fixation for the management of unstable hangman’s fractures.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The classification of hangman’s fractures as proposed by Levine-Edwards was used to classify and guide the treatment of these injuries. Most of these fractures respond to a variety of conservative therapies, but recently, earlier surgery has been increasingly advocated by authors from several countries for the rapid stabilization of these fractures. If surgery is indicated, an anterior approach using a C2-C3 reduction and fusion is preferred usually. Another well-accepted surgical method is the direct transpedicular osteosynthesis by the dorsal approach. However, there was rare report of the combined use of these 2 techniques.
METHODS: A group of 45 surgical patients were all diagnosed with radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 3D CT scans. Initial and final radiographs were measured for anterior translation and angulation of the C2-C3 complex. Initial external skull traction with extension was used in all patients after admission to reduce the fracture. Then an anterior C2-C3 discectomy followed by an interbody fusion and locking plate fixation was performed. Intraoperative reduction was confirmed by fluoroscopic control. About 29 patients therefore received anterior surgeries only since satisfactory reduction was achieved during the procedure. For the 16 patients who had persistent large residual gaps after the anterior procedure, additional same stage posterior C2 compressive pedicle screws were placed. Clinical and radiologic comparisons were performed in these 2 groups.
RESULTS: The follow-up ranged from 24 to 54 months, with an average 33.6 months. There was radiographic evidence of continuity of the fracture and the bone graft seen at 4.7 months on average. Neck pain and neurologic deficits resolved in nearly all patients after surgery. The anterior translation of anterior-posterior surgery group decreased more significant compared to anterior surgery group, although with no statistical significance. The fractures were closed with a slight gap no more than 2 mm in anterior-posterior surgery group. The residual kyphosis in anterior-posterior surgery group was still a little larger than it in anterior surgery group. No internal fixation failures or infections were observed.
CONCLUSION: We believe that the need for single stage 360° fusion of hangman’s fractures can be somewhat predicted by a combination of high resolution imaging. For hangman’s fractures with significant deformity and gapping, it is our experience that immediate single-stage anterior-posterior reduction, instrumentation, and arthrodesis achieve superior postoperative reduction and long-term functional outcomes.

PMID: 20150833 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]