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Neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects of bone marrow stromal cells after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats.

Cytotherapy. 2011 Aug;13(7):873-87

Authors: Novikova LN, Brohlin M, Kingham PJ, Novikov LN, Wiberg M

Abstract
BACKGROUND AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) have been shown to provide neuroprotection after transplantation into the injured central nervous system. The present study investigated whether adult rat BMSC differentiated along a Schwann cell lineage could increase production of trophic factors and support neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after transplantation into the injured spinal cord.
METHODS: After cervical C4 hemi-section, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled BMSC were injected into the lateral funiculus at 1 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion site. Spinal cords were analyzed 2-13 weeks after transplantation.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of native BMSC with Schwann cell-differentiating factors significantly increased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro. Transplanted undifferentiated and differentiated BMSC remained at the injection sites, and in the trauma zone were often associated with neurofilament-positive fibers and increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. BMSC promoted extensive in-growth of serotonin-positive raphaespinal axons and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive dorsal root sensory axons into the trauma zone, and significantly attenuated astroglial and microglial cell reactions, but induced aberrant sprouting of CGRP-immunoreactive axons in Rexed’s lamina III. Differentiated BMSC provided neuroprotection for axotomized rubrospinal neurons and increased the density of rubrospinal axons in the dorsolateral funiculus rostral to the injury site. The present results suggest that BMSC induced along the Schwann cell lineage increase expression of trophic factors and have neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects after spinal cord injury.

PMID: 21521004 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Spontaneous resolution of discal cyst around L5 nerve root: case report and review of literature.

Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec;25(6):761-3

Authors: Prasad G, Kabir SM, Saifuddin A, Casey AT

Abstract
The treatment of discal cysts is controversial, with different surgical options described in the literature. We present an interesting case of spontaneous resolution of a symptomatic discal cyst. Based on our case report, we recommend non-operative management in the first instance and an up-to-date MRI scan before contemplating surgery.

PMID: 21501056 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

GDNF-treated Acellular Nerve Graft Promotes Motoneuron Axon Regeneration after Implantation into Cervical Root Avulsed- Spinal Cord.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2012 Jan 30;

Authors: Chu TH, Wang L, Guo A, Chan VW, Wong CW, Wu W

Abstract
It is well known that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for motoneurons. We have previously shown that it greatly enhanced motoneuron survival and axon regeneration after implantation of peripheral nerve graft following spinal root avulsion. Aims: In the current study, we explore whether injection of GDNF promotes axon regeneration in decellularized nerve induced by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Methods: We injected saline or GDNF into the decellularized nerve after root avulsion in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and assessed motoneuron axon regeneration and Schwann cell migration by retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry. Results: We found that no axons were present in saline-treated acellular nerve whereas Schwann cells migrated into GDNF-treated acellular nerve grafts. We also found that Schwann cells migrated into the nerve grafts as early as 4 days after implantation, coinciding with the first appearance of regenerating axons in the grafts. Application of GDNF outside the graft did not induce Schwann cell infiltration nor axon regeneration into the graft. Application of pleiotrophin, a trophic factor which promotes axon regeneration but not Schwann cell migration, did not promote axon infiltration into acellular nerve graft. Conclusions: We conclude that GDNF induced Schwann cell migration and axon regeneration into the acellular nerve graft. Our findings can be of potential clinical value to develop acellular nerve grafting for use in spinal root avulsion injuries. © 2012 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2012 British Neuropathological Society.

PMID: 22289090 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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